From the 1920s to the 1990s, the development policy of residential building complexes in the USSR was the backbone of the Soviet economy. Being in a mainly rural state, the country started to look towards global urbanization. The mikrorayon, the residential complex, was organized basically around the traditional monoblocks (khrushchyovkas), and already in the 1950s the government planned districts of between 10,000 and 30,000 inhabitants. At that time, the immense part of the citizens coexisted in the so-called kommunalkas, apartments shared between several families, each occupied single room. From 1950 to 1970 the construction process was efficient, simple and massive. The khrushchyovka was the basic housing unit that is a five floor building without elevator that consists of 40-50 small apartments. Buildings based on prefabricated concrete panels, with the windows and doors previously inserted, should be extremely simple and cheap. In the 1960s and 1970s, soviet factories relentlessly produced 400 million square meters of apartments, which started with 5 floor buildings (K-7) to be addressed later, under a prevailing limitation of space, buildings of 9 or 16 floors (called brezhnevki). At that time, it was the largest public plan for mass housing construction launched in the human history. In 1974, after an average of 2.2 million flats built per year, only thirty percent of the populationresided in komunalkas. In 1980, the height of the houses was already projected in 22 floors. In the 1990s, under a context of economic collapse, the government stopped the construction of housing, which is no longer the part of the centrally planned economy. At that time, 75 percent of all Soviet residences had industrialized origin. The microrayon, within this plan, was the field of action of the soviet architects. Between 1950 and 1980, at the same time when buildings were standardized and mass produced in factories, revolutionary typological solutions, capable of accommodating and making functional the relationship between buildings, public spaces and state services, were devised

Ten years school class anniversary.
Khamovniki, Moscow. 1966 / Khamovniki, Moscow. 1976.

Ram head in the fronter between Georgia and Dagestan. 2016.
Car in the outskirts of Sofia, Bulgaria. 2015.

Obituary posters start from an exceptional act, the choice of the image to represent the person deceased. In Bulgaria, the deceased portrait is shown profusely. A divergent path is followed unlike the most of western society, which has relegated to minority spaces the relations between death, image and identity. Here, the exposure methods of obituary portraits beat a merely informative nature. They disseminate the place, coexist in constant reflection with the image of the deceased. The speech is oriented in the viewpointopposite to denial. When released from exile, it is granted to the death a daily role. Obituary posters, as part of Bulgarian Orthodox tradition, must be rigorously displayed in public spaces three days after the death of any resident. The same announcement will be reprinted and displayed at nine, forty days, six, nine months and, subsequently, each anniversary. Only from day forty should be incorporated a photograph of the deceased into the obituary poster, which traditionally must be in black and white. As long as that person is remembered, his death will be commemorated again with a new reprint. There are obituary posters that are replaced sixty years after the death of a person. The structure of the poster must be composed of an orthodox cross in the upper central part, a frame around the full text, the news of the death, the three names of the deceased, the day of birth and death, a short text or poem in condolences, the name of the obituary author, information regarding the place and date of the funeral, and a photograph in the central part. The places where the obituary poster have to be placed are, traditionally, the door of the deceased’s habitual residence, his church and the cemetery where he is buried. However, it is usual to find posters in places where the deceased spent part of his time, or places he walked for. That is, parks, workplaces, trees or walls of transit streets.

Obituary posters in Sozopol, Bulgaria. 2019.
Obituary posters in Chernomorets, Bulgaria. 2019.

Moscow. 2017.

Madrid. 2017.

Warsaw. 2014.